The increasing rates of resistance to antibiotics among gram-negative pathogens have driven the development of antibiotics that target specific mechanisms of resistance and/or bacterial species. However, due to the potency and price of these drugs, access to them frequently requires prior bacterial identification and susceptibility testing. Until recently, those procedures would require several days, delaying the time to effective therapy. However, new technologies developed or in development by Bruker, bioMérieux, T2 Biosystems, and others now allow for a significant reduction in the turnaround period and facilitate faster and more appropriate antibiotic prescribing. As a consequence, these tools offer the potential to improve outcomes and decrease the overall cost of treatment.


  • What are the current and emerging assays for pathogen identification (ID) and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST)? How do they influence physicians’ prescribing?
  • What restrictions are in place for premium-priced agents such as Zerbaxa, Avycaz, or Vabomere? How do these restrictions shape uptake of these therapies?
  • What is physicians’ level of familiarity and perception of novel rapid ID and AST assays such as the Accelerate Pheno System, Sepsityper, or PNA FISH? How do decision makers evaluate/perceive new technologies?
  • How can early collaboration between antibiotic developers and medical device companies benefit the development and commercial success of new drugs?


DRG’s Special Topics reports use quantitative and quantitative primary research to assess evolving trends and market effects in dynamic disease areas. Insights from this report on GNIs will help antibiotic and medical device developers understand current and future practices in the clinical microbiology laboratory and how they shape the uptake of current and emerging therapies.


  • United States.


Survey of 100 infectious diseases specialists; more than 10 interviews with thought-leading infectious diseases specialists and medical directors/directors of clinical microbiology laboratories.


Avycaz, Zerbaxa, Vabomere, Teflaro, and other key GNI generic drugs.


Accelerate Pheno System, fluorescence based assays, MALDI-TOF-MS, and molecular diagnostics.


  • Current laboratory practices in different indications (NP, CABP, UTI, BSI, sepsis).
  • Influence of pathogen ID and AST in prescribing.
  • Identification of ID and AST unmet needs across indications.
  • Physician familiarity with and opinion about rapid ID and AST assays.

Table of contents

  • Hospital-Treated Gram-Negative Infections - Current Treatment - Special Topics (US): Diagnostics And Emerging Therapies
    • 2018 Special Topics Report - Hospital-Treated Gram-Negative Infections - Spotlight on the Interplay Between Diagnostics and Emerging Therapies US Survey

Author(s): Nuno Tiago Giao Antunes, Ph.D.

Nuno Antunes, D.V.M., Ph.D., is a director on the Infectious, Niche, and Rare Diseases team at Decision Resources Group. Prior to this role, he was a senior analyst on the Global Market Access Insights team, where he served as a lead expert in market access, pricing and reimbursement, health technology assessment, and health policy in Latin American countries. He has extensive experience in the study of mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and in the development of novel antibiotics. He obtained his Ph.D. from the Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria in Spain.