Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of advanced liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma and a common indication for liver transplantation. The 2013-2015 FDA approvals of Gilead’s Sovaldi (sofosbuvir) and Harvoni (sofosbuvir/ledipasvir), combined with Bristol-Myers Squibb’s Daklinza (daclatasvir) and AbbVie’s Viekira Pak (ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir + dasabuvir), have ushered in the era of interferon (IFN)-free direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for chronic HCV infection and completely reshaped the HCV therapeutic market. The January 2016 approval of Merck & Co.’s Zepatier (elbasvir/grazoprevir) provided a cost-competitive option for genotype 1,4 patients. The FDA’s recent approval of Gilead’s Epclusa (sofosbuvir/velpatasvir) provides the first FDC approved for all HCV genotypes. Hepatitis C Virus | Access & Reimbursement | U.S. examines the market access factors that influence the success of IFN-free DAA therapies in the U.S. market. The series is based on primary research with U.S. gastroenterologists, hepatologists, and infectious disease specialists, as well as PDs/MDs associated with U.S.-based MCOs. This research explores how payers and physicians interact and how reimbursement decisions influence the prescribing and uptake of specific therapies at the brand level.

Table of contents

  • Hepatitis C Virus - Access & Reimbursement - Detailed, Expanded Analysis (US)
    • Actionable Recommendations to Optimize Market Access
      • Successes and Stumbles
        • Successes Among HCV Therapies in the United States
        • Stumbles Among HCV Therapies in the United States
        • United States: Reimbursement Successes and Stumbles
        • Key Stakeholders in the Road to Market Access
          • United States: Stakeholder Dynamics in the Road to Reimbursement
        • Key Market Access Roadblocks
          • Reimbursement Dynamics
            • United States: Commercial Managed Care Organizations
              • Lessons Learned and Key Takeaways
              • Factors Driving Formulary Inclusion
              • Drivers of Formulary Inclusion in Largest Commercial and Medicare Advantage Plans
              • Key Findings
              • Common Restrictions in Largest Commercial Plan: Segmented by HCV Brand
              • Prior Authorization Criteria in Largest Commercial Plan: Segmented by HCV Brand
              • Impact of Prior Authorization Restrictions by Liver Disease Stage
          • Pricing and Reimbursement, Policy, and Coverage: Impact on Prescribing
            • Patient Share in Key Payer Channel
              • Key Findings
              • Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Naive Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 1 Patients: Segmented by Physician Specialty
              • Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Experienced Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 1 Patients: Segmented by Physician Specialty
              • Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Naive Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 2 Patients: Segmented by Physician Specialty
              • Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Experienced Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 2 Patients: Segmented by Physician Specialty
              • Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Naive Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 3 Patients: Segmented by Physician Specialty
              • Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Experienced Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 3 Patients: Segmented by Physician Specialty
              • Key Findings
              • Prescribing Drivers of Most-Prescribed Regimen for Commercially Insured Genotype 1 HCV Subpopulations: All Physicians
              • Prescribing Drivers of Most-Prescribed Regimen for Commercially Insured Genotype 2 HCV Subpopulations: All Physicians
              • Prescribing Drivers of Most-Prescribed Regimen for Commercially Insured Genotype 3 HCV Subpopulations: All Physicians
            • Prescriber Preference
              • Prescriber Preferences for HCV
              • Preferred Regimens for Genotype 1 HCV Patients Absent Market Access Constraints: All Physicians
              • Preferred Regimens for Genotype 2 HCV Patients Absent Market Access Constraints: All Physicians
              • Preferred Regimens for Genotype 3 HCV Patients Absent Market Access Constraints: All Physicians
            • Impact of Payer Policy on Prescribing
              • Key Findings: Influential Restrictions on HCV Prescribing
              • Percentage of Commercially Insured Patients Who Did Not Receive Prescribed HCV Brand Because of Market Access Issues: Segmented by Physician Specialty
              • Market Access Reasons for Commercially Insured Patients Not Receiving Prescribed HCV Therapy: All Physicians
              • Key Levers and Constraints on Select HCV Therapies
          • Market Access Landscape for Emerging Therapies
            • Likely Impact of Emerging Therapies
              • Likely Impact of Emerging Therapies for HCV
              • Current and Anticipated Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Naive Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 1 Patients: All Physicians
              • Current and Anticipated Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Experienced Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 1 Patients: All Physicians
              • Anticipated Patient Share of Emerging Therapies Among Physicians Who Currently Prescribe Sovaldi + RBV to Commercially Insured Treatment-Naive Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 2 Patients: All Physicians
              • Anticipated Patient Share of Emerging Therapies Among Physicians Who Currently Prescribe Sovaldi + RBV to Commercially Insured Treatment-Experienced Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 2 Patients: All Physicians
              • Current and Anticipated Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Naive Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 3 Patients: All Physicians
              • Current and Anticipated Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Experienced Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 3 Patients: All Physicians
            • Potential Placement of Emerging Therapies at Various Prices
              • Potential Reimbursement of Emerging Therapies for HCV
              • Anticipated Coverage of Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir in Largest Commercial Plan at Various Pricing Scenarios
              • Anticipated Coverage of Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir/Voxilaprevir in Largest Commercial Plan at Various Pricing Scenarios
            • Prescriber and MCO Opinion of Remaining Unmet Need
              • Prescriber and MCO Opinion of Remaining Unmet Needs in the HCV Therapy Market
              • MCO PDs/MDs' Opinion of HCV Drug Development Priorities
              • Physicians' Opinion of HCV Drug Development Priorities: Segmented by Physician Specialty
          • Methodology
            • Primary Market Research Methodology - Physicians
              • Physician Specialties
              • Gastroenterologists Who Consider Themselves Hepatologists
              • Origin of Interest in Hepatology
              • Location of Practice by Region
              • Location of Practice by State
              • Years in Practice Postresidency
              • Physician Practice Setting: Segmented by Physician Specialty
              • Number of HCV Patients Under Management by Physicians
              • Number of HCV Patients Being Actively Treated
              • Genotypic Makeup of HCV Patients: Segmented by Physician Specialty
              • Liver Cirrhosis in HCV Patients: Segmented by Genotype and Physician Specialty
              • Degree of Liver Damage in HCV Patients: Segmented by Genotype and Physician Specialty
              • Awareness of Current and Emerging HCV Therapies: Segmented by Physician Specialty
              • Prescribing of HCV Therapies Within the Past Six Months: Gastroenterologists
              • Prescribing of HCV Therapies Within the Past Six Months: Hepatologists
              • Prescribing of HCV Therapies Within the Past Six Months: Infectious Disease Specialists
              • Prescribing of HCV Therapies Within the Past Six Months: All Physicians
              • Prescribing of Emerging Therapies Within the Past Six Months as Part of a Clinical Trial: Segmented by Physician Specialty
              • HCV Patient Insurance Coverage Status: Segmented by Physician Specialty
            • Primary Market Research Methodology - MCOs
              • Pharmacy/Medical Director Status Within MCO
              • Location of MCOs by Region
              • Location of MCOs by State
              • National/Regional/State Operations of MCOs
              • Types of Insurance Plans Offered by MCOs
            • Fingertip Formulary Methodology
            • Appendix
              • Physician Survey
                • Treatment-Naive and Treatment-Experienced HCV Patients Segmented by Genotype and Liver Damage: Gastroenterologists
                • Treatment-Naive and Treatment-Experienced HCV Patients Segmented by Genotype and Liver Damage: Hepatologists
                • Treatment-Naive and Treatment-Experienced HCV Patients Segmented by Genotype and Liver Damage: ID Specialists
                • Treatment-Naive and Treatment-Experienced HCV Patients Segmented by Genotype and Liver Damage: All Physicians
                • Treatment Rates Among HCV Patients Segmented by Genotype, Prior Treatment Experience, and Liver Damage: Gastroenterologists
                • Treatment Rates Among HCV Patients Segmented by Genotype, Prior Treatment Experience, and Liver Damage: Hepatologists
                • Treatment Rates Among HCV Patients Segmented by Genotype, Prior Treatment Experience, and Liver Damage: ID Specialists
                • Treatment Rates Among HCV Patients Segmented by Genotype, Prior Treatment Experience, and Liver Damage: All Physicians
                • Treatment Approach in Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic HCV Patients Segmented by Genotype: All Physicians
                • Treatment Approach in Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic HCV Patients: Segmented by Genotype and Physician Specialty
                • Prescribing Drivers for Most-Prescribed Regimen Among Commercially Insured Genotype 1 HCV Subpopulations: Gastroenterologists
                • Prescribing Drivers for Most-Prescribed Regimen Among Commercially Insured Genotype 1 HCV Subpopulations: Hepatologists
                • Prescribing Drivers for Most-Prescribed Regimen Among Commercially Insured Genotype 1 HCV Subpopulations: ID Specialists
                • Prescribing Drivers for Most-Prescribed Regimen Among Commercially Insured Genotype 2 HCV Subpopulations: Gastroenterologists
                • Prescribing Drivers for Most-Prescribed Regimen Among Commercially Insured Genotype 2 HCV Subpopulations: Hepatologists
                • Prescribing Drivers for Most-Prescribed Regimen Among Commercially Insured Genotype 2 HCV Subpopulations: ID Specialists
                • Prescribing Drivers for Most-Prescribed Regimen Among Commercially Insured Genotype 3 HCV Subpopulations: Gastroenterologists
                • Prescribing Drivers for Most-Prescribed Regimen Among Commercially Insured Genotype 3 HCV Subpopulations: Hepatologists
                • Prescribing Drivers for Most-Prescribed Regimen Among Commercially Insured Genotype 3 HCV Subpopulations: ID Specialists
                • Preferred Regimens for Genotype 1 HCV Patients Absent Market Access Constraints: Gastroenterologists
                • Preferred Regimens for Genotype 1 HCV Patients Absent Market Access Constraints: Hepatologists
                • Preferred Regimens for Genotype 1 HCV Patients Absent Market Access Constraints: ID Specialists
                • Preferred Regimens for Genotype 2 HCV Patients Absent Market Access Constraints: Gastroenterologists
                • Preferred Regimens for Genotype 2 HCV Patients Absent Market Access Constraints: Hepatologists
                • Preferred Regimens for Genotype 2 HCV Patients Absent Market Access Constraints: ID Specialists
                • Preferred Regimens for Genotype 3 HCV Patients Absent Market Access Constraints: Gastroenterologists
                • Preferred Regimens for Genotype 3 HCV Patients Absent Market Access Constraints: Hepatologists
                • Preferred Regimens for Genotype 3 HCV Patients Absent Market Access Constraints: ID Specialists
                • Current Involvement of Fibrosis Restrictions in Commercially Insured Patients Not Receiving Prescribed HCV Therapy: Segmented by Physician Specialty
                • Future Involvement of Fibrosis Restrictions in Commercially Insured Patients Not Receiving Prescribed HCV Therapy: Segmented by Physician Specialty
                • Percentage of Medicare-Insured Patients Who Did Not Receive Prescribed HCV Brand Because of Market Access Issues: Segmented by Physician Specialty
                • Current Involvement of Fibrosis Restrictions in Medicare-Insured Patients Not Receiving Prescribed HCV Therapy: Segmented by Physician Specialty
                • Future Involvement of Fibrosis Restrictions in Medicare-Insured Patients Not Receiving Prescribed HCV Therapy: Segmented by Physician Specialty
                • Utilization Management Controls Regularly Encountered by Physicians When Prescribing Key HCV Brands to Commercially Insured Patients: Gastroenterologists
                • Utilization Management Controls Regularly Encountered by Physicians When Prescribing Key HCV Brands to Commercially Insured Patients: Hepatologists
                • Utilization Management Controls Regularly Encountered by Physicians When Prescribing Key HCV Brands to Commercially Insured Patients: ID Specialists
                • Utilization Management Controls Regularly Encountered by Physicians When Prescribing Key HCV Brands to Commercially Insured Patients: All Physicians
                • Prior Authorization Criteria Regularly Encountered by Physicians When Prescribing Key HCV Brands to Commercially Insured Patients: Gastroenterologists
                • Prior Authorization Criteria Regularly Encountered by Physicians When Prescribing Key HCV Brands to Commercially Insured Patients: Hepatologists
                • Prior Authorization Criteria Regularly Encountered by Physicians When Prescribing Key HCV Brands to Commercially Insured Patients: ID Specialists
                • Prior Authorization Criteria Regularly Encountered by Physicians When Prescribing Key HCV Brands to Commercially Insured Patients: All Physicians
                • Utilization Management Controls Regularly Encountered by Physicians When Prescribing Key HCV Brands to Medicare-Insured Patients: Gastroenterologists
                • Utilization Management Controls Regularly Encountered by Physicians When Prescribing Key HCV Brands to Medicare-Insured Patients: Hepatologists
                • Utilization Management Controls Regularly Encountered by Physicians When Prescribing Key HCV Brands to Medicare-Insured Patients: Infectious Disease Specialists
                • Utilization Management Controls Regularly Encountered by Physicians When Prescribing Key HCV Brands to Medicare-Insured Patients: All Physicians
                • Prior Authorization Criteria Regularly Encountered by Physicians When Prescribing Key HCV Brands to Medicare-Insured Patients: Gastroenterologists
                • Prior Authorization Criteria Regularly Encountered by Physicians When Prescribing Key HCV Brands to Medicare-Insured Patients: Hepatologists
                • Prior Authorization Criteria Regularly Encountered by Physicians When Prescribing Key HCV Brands to Medicare-Insured Patients: ID Specialists
                • Prior Authorization Criteria Regularly Encountered by Physicians When Prescribing Key HCV Brands to Medicare-Insured Patients: All Physicians
                • Factors Influencing Selection of New HCV Therapies: Gastroenterologists
                • Factors Influencing Selection of New HCV Therapies: Hepatologists
                • Factors Influencing Selection of New HCV Therapies: Infectious Disease Specialists
                • Factors Influencing Selection of New HCV Therapies: All Physicians
                • Current and Anticipated Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Naive Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 1 Patients: Gastroenterologists
                • Current and Anticipated Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Naive Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 1 Patients: Hepatologists
                • Current and Anticipated Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Naive Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 1 Patients: ID Specialists
                • Current and Anticipated Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Experienced Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 1 Patients: Gastroenterologists
                • Current and Anticipated Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Experienced Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 1 Patients: Hepatologists
                • Current and Anticipated Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Experienced Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 1 Patients: ID Specialists
                • Anticipated Patient Share of Emerging Therapies Among Physicians Who Currently Prescribe Harvoni +/- RBV to Commercially Insured Treatment-Naive Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 2 Patients: All Physicians
                • Anticipated Patient Share of Emerging Therapies Among Physicians Who Currently Prescribe Sovaldi + Daklinza +/- RBV to Commercially Insured Treatment-Naive Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 2 Patients: All Physicians
                • Anticipated Patient Share of Emerging Therapies Among Physicians Who Currently Prescribe Epclusa +/- RBV to Commercially Insured Treatment-Naive Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 2 Patients: All Physicians
                • Anticipated Patient Share of Emerging Therapies Among Physicians Who Currently Prescribe Harvoni +/- RBV to Commercially Insured Treatment-Experienced Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 2 Patients: All Physicians
                • Anticipated Patient Share of Emerging Therapies Among Physicians Who Currently Prescribe Sovaldi + Daklinza +/- RBV to Commercially Insured Treatment-Experienced Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 2 Patients: All Physicians
                • Anticipated Patient Share of Emerging Therapies Among Physicians Who Currently Prescribe Epclusa +/- RBV to Commercially Insured Treatment-Experienced Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 2 Patients: All Physicians
                • Current and Anticipated Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Naive Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 3 Patients: Gastroenterologists
                • Current and Anticipated Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Naive Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 3 Patients: Hepatologists
                • Current and Anticipated Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Naive Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 3 Patients: ID Specialists
                • Current and Anticipated Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Experienced Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 3 Patients: Gastroenterologists
                • Current and Anticipated Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Experienced Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 3 Patients: Hepatologists
                • Current and Anticipated Patient Share for Commercially Insured Treatment-Experienced Noncirrhotic and Cirrhotic Genotype 3 Patients: ID Specialists
                • Statement Agreement on Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir: Segmented by Physician Specialty
                • Statement Agreement on Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir/Voxilaprevir: Segmented by Physician Specialty
                • Market Access Reasons for Commercially Insured Patients Not Receiving Prescribed HCV Therapy: Gastroenterologists
                • Market Access Reasons for Commercially Insured Patients Not Receiving Prescribed HCV Therapy: Hepatologists
                • Market Access Reasons for Commercially Insured Patients Not Receiving Prescribed HCV Therapy: ID Specialists
                • Market Access Reasons for Medicare-Insured Patients Not Receiving Prescribed HCV Therapy: Gastroenterologists
                • Market Access Reasons for Medicare-Insured Patients Not Receiving Prescribed HCV Therapy: Hepatologists
                • Market Access Reasons for Medicare-Insured Patients Not Receiving Prescribed HCV Therapy: ID Specialists
                • Market Access Reasons for Medicare-Insured Patients Not Receiving Prescribed HCV Therapy: All Physicians
              • MCO Survey
                • Covered Lives Managed by MCOs
                • Average Individual Covered Lives Managed by MCOs
                • Awareness of Current and Emerging HCV Therapies: MCO PDs and MDs
                • Tier Structure of Largest Commercial and Medicare Advantage Plans
                • Factors Influencing Blockage or Exclusion of HCV Brands in Largest Commercial Plan
                • Factors Influencing Blockage or Exclusion of HCV Brands in Largest Commercial Plan (cont.)
                • Status of P&T Committee Review for Nonpreferred HCV Therapies in Largest Commercial Plan
                • Anticipated Timing of P&T Review for Blocked or Excluded HCV Therapies in Largest Commercial Plan
                • Tier Status of Covered HCV Therapies in Largest Commercial Plan
                • Average Coinsurance Rate Levied for HCV Therapies in Largest Commercial Plan
                • Average Copayment Levied for HCV Therapies in Largest Commercial Plan
                • Use of Deductible with Brand-Name HCV Therapies in Largest Commercial Plan
                • Average Deductible Used with Brand-Name HCV Therapies in Largest Commercial Plan
                • Formulary Type in Largest Commercial Plan
                • Coverage Status of Current HCV Therapies in Largest Medicare Advantage Plan
                • Anticipated Coverage Status of Current HCV Therapies in Largest Medicare Advantage Plan
                • Number of Voting Members on P&T Committee
                • Post-Launch Timeline for P&T Committee Decisions on Utilization Management Controls
                • Post-Launch Status of HCV Therapies Not Yet Reviewed by P&T Committee
                • P&T Committee Members with the Greatest Influence on Formulary Decisions
                • HCV-Specific Requirements for Dossier Submitted to P&T Committee
                • Most Compelling HCV-Specific Pharmacoeconomic/Health Economic Outcomes Data
                • Pharmaceutical Companies That Have Submitted Pharmacoeconomic/Health Economic Outcomes Data
                • Quality of Pharmacoeconomic/Health Economic Outcomes Data Submitted for Current HCV Therapies
                • Impact of Submitted Pharmacoeconomic/Health Economic Outcomes Data
                • Contracting Agreements in Place: Segmented by HCV Brand
                • Changes to Total Pharmacy Budget Expenditure for HCV Therapies
                • Anticipated Changes to Total Pharmacy Budget Expenditure for HCV Therapies
                • Utilization Management Controls Used by Largest Commercial Plan: Segmented by HCV Brand
                • Number of Steps for Step Therapy Utilization Management Control in Largest Commercial Plan: Segmented by HCV Brand
                • Step Therapy Trial and Failure Requirements in Largest Commercial Plan: Segmented by HCV Regimen
                • Treatment Duration Limits in Largest Commercial Plan: Segmented by HCV Brand
                • Minimum Fibrosis Stage Required to Satisfy Prior Authorization Criteria in Largest Commercial Plan: Segmented by HCV Brand
                • Amount of Time Patient Must Abstain from Drug/Alcohol Use to Satisfy Prior Authorization Criteria in Largest Commercial Plan, Segmented by HCV Bran:
                • Utilization Management Controls Used by Largest Medicare Advantage Plan: Segmented by HCV Brand
                • Number of Steps for Step Therapy Utilization Management Control in Largest Medicare Advantage Plan: Segmented by HCV Brand
                • Treatment Duration Limits in Largest Medicare Advantage Plan: Segmented by HCV Brand
                • Prior Authorization Criteria in Largest Medicare Advantage Plan: Segmented by HCV Brand
                • Minimum Fibrosis Stage Required to Satisfy Prior Authorization Criteria in Largest Medicare Advantage Plan: Segmented by HCV Brand
                • Amount of Time Patient Must Abstain from Drug/Alcohol Use to Satisfy Prior Authorization Criteria in Largest Medicare Advantage Plan: Segmented by HCV Brand
                • Anticipated Coverage of Epclusa by Largest Commercial Plan
                • Anticipated Coverage of Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir by Largest Medicare Advantage Plan at Various Pricing Scenarios
                • Anticipated Coverage of Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir/Voxilaprevir by Largest Medicare Advantage Plan at Various Pricing Scenarios
                • Anticipated Utilization Management Controls for Emerging HCV Therapies in Largest Commercial Plan
                • Anticipated Prior Authorization Criteria for Emerging HCV Therapies in Largest Commercial Plan
                • Anticipated Utilization Management Controls for Emerging HCV Therapies in Largest Medicare Advantage Plan
                • Anticipated Prior Authorization Criteria for Emerging HCV Therapies in Largest Medicare Advantage Plan
                • Reasons for Anticipated Blockage or Exclusion of Epclusa from Largest Commercial or Medicare Advantage Plans
                • Reasons for Anticipated Blockage or Exclusion of Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir from Largest Commercial or Medicare Advantage Plans
                • Reasons for Anticipated Blockage or Exclusion of Sofosbuvir/Velpatasvir/Voxilaprevir from Largest Commercial or Medicare Advantage Plans
                • Preferred Comparators for Emerging Therapies During P&T Committee Review
              • Fingertip Formulary Data
                • Tier Status of Covered HCV Therapies by Covered Lives
                • Tier Status of Covered HCV Therapies by Plan

          Author(s): James Heeres, PhD

          James is a part of the infectious, niche markets, and rare diseases team at DRG. His work involves evaluating treatment landscape, unmet needs, emerging therapy positioning, commercial potential, drug development opportunities, and company competitiveness. Currently, his concentration is in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in US and EU5 markets.

          James earned his Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign while studying high-throughput screening technologies and small-molecule inhibitors of apoptosis. Prior to joining DRG, his postdoctoral studies involved drug discovery and development in neurodegenerative diseases at both Harvard Medical School and Boston University School of Medicine.