Antibiotics from several different drug classes (e.g., carbapenems, quinolones, cephalosporins, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors) are currently available to treat hospitalized patients with gram-negative infections (GNIs). However, the increasing prevalence and severity of infections caused by multi-drug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative pathogens (GNPs) and the meager pipeline of novel emerging antibiotic therapies currently in development to treat GNIs have resulted in limited treatment options for an increasing number of patients. Despite these challenges, the late-stage clinical pipeline for antibiotics against MDR GNPs includes two promising cephalosporin/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, Cubist’s CXA-201 (ceftolozane/tazobactam) and Forest/AstraZeneca’s CAZ-AVI (ceftazidime/avibactam), as well as Tetraphase’s IV and oral tetracycline, eravacycline, and a next generation aminoglycoside, Achaogen’s plazomicin. In addition, efforts are currently underway to promote and incentivize the development of novel antibiotics that can effectively combat MDR GNPs, including the Infectious Disease Society of America’s proposed Limited Population Antibacterial Drug (LPAD) approval mechanism and the Generating Antibiotics Incentives Now (GAIN) Act passed by Congress as part of the reauthorization of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA).
For this U.S. Physician and Payer Forum we surveyed 70 infectious disease (ID) specialists, 37 internal medicine specialists, 36 critical care/intensive care unit (ICU) specialists, and 30 hospital pharmacy directors (PDs) to gain a better understanding of how formulary and reimbursement constraints influence physicians’ treatment decisions for patients hospitalized with GNIs and to understand the factors that influence hospital formulary coverage. We also examine the perceptions of both physicians and payers on several emerging therapies and determine how pricing and formulary positioning will impact market access and uptake. Additionally, we probe physician and payer awareness and receptivity to novel therapies approved via the LPAD approval mechanism across several types of MDR GNPs, indications, and efficacy outcome measures.
This U.S. Physician & Payer Forum report contains insights from a survey of 147 physicians and 30 hospital pharmacy directors regarding the effect(s) formulary and reimbursement constraints have on physicians’ treatment decisions and the factors that influence hospital formulary coverage. We also examine the perceptions of both physicians and payers on several emerging therapies and potential LPAD-approved agents and determine how pricing and formulary positioning will impact market access and uptake.
- Markets covered: United States.
- Primary research: online survey of 70 ID specialists, 37 internal medicine specialists, 36 critical care/ICU specialists, and 30 hospital PDs.